Acids and Bases Module: Gateway Page


Table of Contents


Molecular Structure

Ionization Constants



Lewis Theory

Note: There are several places in this tutorial where you should enter answers in scientific notation. To do this, replace the "x 10" with an "e". For example, to enter "3.2 x 10-4", type "3.2e-4".

An Introduction to Acids and Bases

This module describes the observable and chemical properties of acids and bases. The Brønsted Theory of acids and bases is explored. The autoionization of water is discussed and the pH scale is introduced.

Molecular Structure of Acids and Bases

Learn why some molecules and ions are able to act as acids or bases. Conjugate acid-base pairs are introduced.

Ionization Constants of Acids and Bases

Ionization constants of acids and bases are introduced in this module. Learn how they are calculated and how to calculate the pH of a solution. The relationship between ionization constants of conjugate acid-base pairs is discussed. Learn how to use ionization constants to predict whether an acid-base reaction is product favored.


This module first defines salts from a chemist's viewpoint. Learn how to determine how a salt will affect the pH of an aqueous solution. Through the example of tooth decay, discover how the solubility of some salts is affected by pH.


Look in depth at a hard water home testing kit and in the process discover the need for buffers and how they work. How to prepare buffers and some of their limitations are also discussed.

Lewis Theory of Acids and Bases

The Lewis Theory of acids and bases is introduced. Learn the molecular characteristics that allow substances to act as Lewis acids or bases. In a neutralization reaction, learn how to classify molecules and ions as Lewis acids or bases.