Protein 1

Table of Contents
Biomolecules Gateway Page
Jmol Tutorial

In this module:

Amino Acids
Hydrophobic and Polar Amino Acids
Acidic and Basic Amino Acids
Peptide Bonds
Planarity of Peptide Bonds
Protein Sequences
Sickle Cell Anemia


After completing this module, you should be able to:

  • Identify the parts of an amino acid
  • Sort amino acids into hydrophobic, polar, acidic, and basic
  • Describe a peptide bond and why it is planar
  • Name protein sequences given their structure

Introduction: Sickle Cell Anemia

Sickle cell anemia is a disease affecting about 0.4% of the African-American population. Its symptoms include fatigue, shortness of breath, and weakness, especially after exertion. Patients sometimes exhibit yellow-tinted eyes. Examination of the blood of sickle-cell patients shows that the number of red blood cells is about half the normal level, and many of the cells show an unusual sickle or crescent shape. These cells are more fragile than normal red blood cells. They break apart more easily and can become trapped in capillaries, causing tissue damage in the peripheral organs.

Research on sickle cell anemia has shown that it is due to an altered form of the protein molecule, hemoglobin, that red blood cells use to transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. After completing this module, you should be able to understand how the alteration causes the symptoms of the sickle cell disease.

Proteins 1